- Quick Cite Guide
- How do I cite my sources?
- How do I know what I can use without violating someone's copyright?
- What is the difference between quoting and paraphrasing?
- Where can I find writing help?
- What tools can I use to manage my citations and research?
Quick Cite Guide
Below is a quick guide to the most frequently asked citation questions by Austin Seminary students, using the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). You can also visit the CMOS page of sample citations here.
To jump to what you need, click one of the format names below:
- Journal article
- Edited Work
- Block quote
- Book of Common Worship
- Shortened notes & Ibid.
Note: The quick guide below generally includes examples for formatting your citation for different resources in your bibliography, and then in your notes (starting with a 1.). Click the link by each heading to go directly to the CMOS for more information.
Wallin, Laurie. Why Your Weirdness Is Wonderful: Embrace Your Quirks and Live Your Strengths. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2014.
1. Laurie Wallin, Why Your Weirdness Is Wonderful: Embrace Your Quirks and Live Your Strengths (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2014), 103-105.
Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.
1. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 23-27.
For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes, if any (or simply omit).
Bishop, Tom. The Great Mormon Cricket Fly-Fishing Festival and Other Western Stories. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007, EBSCO e-book.
1. Tom Bishop, The Great Mormon Cricket Fly-Fishing Festival and Other Western Stories (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007), chap. 2, EBSCO e-book.
In a note, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article.
What's a DOI number? A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique permanent name or number assigned to an article or book. The DOI will usually appear on the first or last page of the item. You can find more information on DOI numbers in the CMOS here.
If there's a DOI number:
Rogland, Max. “‘Moses Used to Take a Tent’?: Reconsidering the Function and Significance of the Verb Forms in Exodus 33:7-11.” The Journal of Theological Studies 63, no. 2 (October 2012): 449–66. doi:10.1093/jts/fls112.
1. Max Rogland, “‘Moses Used to Take a Tent’?: Reconsidering the Function and Significance of the Verb Forms in Exodus 33:7-11,” The Journal of Theological Studies 63, no. 2 (October 2012): 451-53, doi:10.1093/jts/fls112.
If there's not a DOI number, list the permanent URL (Permalink in EBSCO):
Rogland, Max. “‘Moses Used to Take a Tent’?: Reconsidering the Function and Significance of the Verb Forms in Exodus 33:7-11,” The Journal Of Theological Studies 63, no. 2 (October 2012): 449-466. https://apts.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001920466&site=eds-live&scope=site.
1. Max Rogland, “‘Moses Used to Take a Tent’?: Reconsidering the Function and Significance of the Verb Forms in Exodus 33:7-11,” The Journal of Theological Studies 63, no. 2 (October 2012): 451-53, https://apts.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001920466&site=eds-live&scope=site.
Edited work with one editor
Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane, ed. Art, Creativity, and the Sacred: An Anthology in Religion and Art. New York: Continuum, 1995.
1. Diane Apostolos-Cappadona, ed., Art, Creativity, and the Sacred: An Anthology in Religion and Art (New York: Continuum, 1995), 102.
Essay within a volume
Pelham, Abigail. "Making and unmaking the world in the book of Job: reading Job with help from Elaine Scarry, Kurt Vonnegut, and Don LaFontaine." In Looking through a glass Bible: postdisciplinary biblical interpretations from the Glasgow School, edited by A.K.M. Adam and Samuel Tongue, 193-210. Leiden: Brill, 2014.
1. Abigail Pelham, "Making and unmaking the world in the book of Job: reading Job with help from Elaine Scarry, Kurt Vonnegut, and Don LaFontaine," in Looking through a glass Bible: postdisciplinary biblical interpretations from the Glasgow School, ed. A.K.M. Adam and Samuel Tongue (Leiden: Brill, 2014), 193-210.
Lecture paper presentation
Teplin, Linda A., Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn. “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005.
1. Linda A. Teplin, Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn, “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study” (paper, Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005).
Lincoln, Timothy D. "City of God." Faculty sermon given at Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Austin, TX, May 7, 2013.
1. Timothy D. Lincoln, "City of God," (faculty sermon, Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Austin, TX, May 7, 2013).
Blog with limited information
"Lenten Devotional: Monday of Holy Week." The Conversation (blog), March 21, 2016. http://www.northparkpres.org/blog/lenten-devotional-monday-holy-week/.
1. "Lenten Devotional: Monday of Holy Week," The Conversation (blog), March 21, 2016, http://www.northparkpres.org/blog/lenten-devotional-monday-holy-week/.
Blog with added information
Jobe, Eric. “The Price of Kingship – Of Kings and Prophets, Episode 2.” Departing Horeb (blog). March 17, 2016. https://blogs.ancientfaith.com/departinghoreb/price-kingship-kings-prophets-episode-2/.
1. Eric Jobe, “The Price of Kingship – Of Kings and Prophets, Episode 2,” Departing Horeb (blog), March 17, 2016, https://blogs.ancientfaith.com/departinghoreb/price-kingship-kings-prophets-episode-2/.
From CMOS: "...include as much of the following as can be determined: the title or a description of the specific page (if cited); the title or description of the site as a whole; the owner or sponsor of the site; and a URL.... Also include a publication date or date of revision or modification; if no such date can be determined, include an access date."
The Text This Week. "Holy / Maundy Thursday, Reading and Studying the Text This Week." Accessed March 24, 2016. http://www.textweek.com/festivals/thursday.htm.
1. "Holy / Maundy Thursday, Reading and Studying the Text This Week," accessed March 24, 2016, http://www.textweek.com/festivals/thursday.htm.
Van Gorder discusses the Prophet's youth as
Muhammad began his own life within the throes of deep poverty. This illiterate orphan knew poverty firsthand; this experience helped him to gain a high level of sympathy for those who were poor. As a youth he did tough manual work on the caravan routes and eventually became a successful entrepreneur. In all of his business dealings the Prophet was honest, generous and resourceful in his finances.1
Van Gorder, A. Christian. Islam, Peace and Social Justice : A Christian Perspective. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co, 2014.
1. A. Christian Van Gorder, Islam, Peace and Social Justice : A Christian Perspective. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co, 2014, 62.
You generally do not need to cite the Bible in your bibliography, just in your notes. It’s a good idea to note somewhere in your essay which version of the Bible you are using, and then cite book, chapter, and verse.
How to cite the Bible version (link to more info on abbreviations)
6. Gen. 1:5 (Authorized (King James) Version).
7. 1 Sam. 7:1-5 (AV).
Ex. First mention in notes: (Authorized (King James) Version)
Ex. Second mention in notes: (AV)
Quoting the Bible
According to Genesis 2:25, the man and his wife were unclothed.
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Theology and Worship Ministry Unit. Book of Common Worship. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1993.
1Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Theology and Worship Ministry Unit, Book of Common Worship (Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1993), 410-12.
A shortened note
2 PC(USA) Theology and Worship Ministry Worship Unit, 416.
Ibid. is used in your notes when you cite the same source more than once in a row. The current version of CMOS discourages the use of Ibid. and suggests you use shortened citations instead (omitting the title of the work). For more information, follow the link above.
Ibid. for print book with page numbers
5. Lincoln, City of God, 101.
6. Ibid., 201-202.
8. Rogland, 'Moses used to take a tent'?, 342.
9. Ibid, 352-354.
Austin Seminary faculty have approved the Chicago Manual of Style as the official style guide for student work. Please check with your professor if you have questions about the style to use for a specific assignment.
Official style websites
Chicago Manual of Style:
Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chapter 14 -- Notes and Bibliography (login required off campus)
This is the chapter where the full "how do I cite this" material is. A quick guide of common citations is also available.
A quick look at finding and using the Chicago Manual at Austin Seminary.
Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition (print version):
Call number -- PE1478 .U69 2017
Society of Biblical Literature:
You may sometimes use the Society of Biblical Literature style guide, depending on the type of paper you are writing.
Print copies of the SBL Handbook of Style are also available at the Wright Center:
- Call number: REF PN 147 .S26 2014
- Call number: REF PE 1478 .S26 1999
- Call number: PE 1478.S26 1999
- Student Supplement for The SBL Handbook of Style
- SBL Handbook of Style Resources from Baylor University
- SBL Citation Builder from Pitts Theology Library at Emory University
These are ad-supported sites that will generate citations in several formats (including Chicago). Always double-check computer generated citations against the style manual.
Citation Machine (Chicago Only)
NoodleTools Express citation generator (Multi-style Chicago and Turabian)
Citation managers are products that help researchers organize and create citations quickly for a variety of resources, including websites and library resources.
Purdue Online Writing Lab: Chicago Manual of Style Overview and Workshop (Purdue University)
An overview of the Chicago style format from Purdue University, including examples for different types of sources (see the links on the left).
Tutorial: Chicago/Turabian Style (University of North Texas)
A collection of links about the Chicago Manual of Style, including guides to citations for different material types.
Fair Use and Copyright (PDF)
This presentation describes copyright and fair use and outlines how they can affect your work as a student and scholar.
Copyright Crash Course (UT Austin)
A detailed and readable description of all aspects of copyright (including fair use) in an academic context from The University of Texas at Austin.
Annual Academic Copyright License
Austin Seminary purchases an Annual Academic Copyright License through the Copyright Clearance Center. This is an umbrella license that gives our faculty, students, and staff the right to share copyrighted materials that fall under the license, limited to terms set by individual publishers.
Use this link to see if your resource is covered by the Annual Academic Copyright License (requires login with Seminary credentials if off-campus).
Austin Seminary Writing and Study Skills course (MyLearning)
The Writing and Academic Skills Resources course on MyLearning has handouts on popular topics and instructions for booking an in-person or Zoom appointment with Alan Constant, the Austin Seminary Writing and Study Skills Coach
A collection of resources that address general and theological writing available to Austin Seminary students.
Purdue Online Writing Lab (Purdue University)
A comprehensive collection of resources relating to the academic writing and research process.
Boise State University Project Writing and Research e-Textbook (Boise State University)
An introduction to the acadmic writing process, incluidng helpful tools and resources.
How to write an exegesis paper with library resources (Azusa Pacific University)
A guide to the unique steps you need to take when writing an exegetical paper.
Citation Managers: Comparison Chart (University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries)
There are several different free and paid citation managers on the market. This comparison chart shows the features of four popular citation managers.
One of the most robust free options for managing citations and organizing your research is Zotero, which is available at the link above. You can find detailed information about using Zotero in the tutorials on this page.
Using Zotero [YouTube Video] (UNC University Libraries, Park Library)
This 15 minute video gives a hands-on demonstration of setting up and using Zotero.
Zotero 5 online workshop [YouTube Video] (Graduate Theological Union Library)
This 50 minute video gives a hands-on demonstration of setting up and using Zotero 5.