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Cite and Use What You Find


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How do I cite my sources?

Austin Seminary faculty have approved the Chicago Manual of Style and the related Turabian Manual as the official style guides for student work. Please check with your professor if you have questions about the style to use for a specific assignment. Tools and Tutorials for both styles are listed below.


Official style websites

Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chapter 14 -- Notes and Bibliography (login required off campus)

This is the chapter where the full "how do I cite this" material is. A quick guide of common citations is also available.

Turabian Manual of Style Quick Guide

Quick guide for Turabian. [The Turabian Manual of Style is the full print book given to you as you enter the Seminary.]


Citation Generators

A list of 3 different ad-supported sites that will generate citations in several formats (including Chicago &  Turabian). Always double-check computer generated citations against the style manual.

Son of Citation Machine (Chicago Only)

E-Turabian (Turabian Only) 

NoodleTools Express citation generator  (Multi-style Chicago and Turabian) 


Citation Managers

Citation managers are products that help researchers organize and create citations quickly for a variety of resources, including websites and library resources. 

Zotero (*free)

EndNote (*subscription price)




Purdue Online Writing Lab: Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition (Purdue University)

An overview of the Chicago style format from Purdue University, including examples for different types of sources (see the links on the left).

Tutorial: Chicago/Turabian Style (University of North Texas)

A collection of links about the Chicago Manual of Style, including guides to citations for different material types.



Turabian Style Guide(Covenant Theological Seminary)

Scroll down the page and click on "Turabian Style Guide" to explore this web-based guide to commonly used Turabian citation types.


Stitt Library citation tutorials

Citing Books: Turabian Style (PDF)

Citing a Journal Article: Turabian Style (PDF)

Turabian Formatting for Journal Article Citations (PDF)

Citing a Website: Turabian Style (PDF)

How do I know what I can use without violating someone's copyright?

Fair Use and Copyright (IQ)

This IQ PowerPoint presentation describes copyright and fair use and outlines how you they can affect your work as a student and scholar. For a PDF copy of the presentation click here.

Copyright Crash Course (UT Austin)

A detailed and readable description of all aspects of copyright (including fair use) in an academic context from The University of Texas at Austin.

What is a footnote and when should I use it?

Functions of a Footnote (IQ)

This IQ PowerPoint presentation describes when and why you should use footnotes in your academic work. For a PDF copy of the presentation click here.

Functions of a Footnote: Examples (IQ)

This PDF handout accompanies the IQ presentation Functions of a Footnote.

What is the difference between quoting and paraphrasing?

Quotations vs. Paraphrasing (IQ)

This IQ PowerPoint presentation discusses the differnces between paraphrasing a source and quoting from a source. For a PDF copy of the presentation click here.

Using the Works of Others (Sacred Heart School of Theology)

This YouTube tutorial discusses quotations vs. paraphrasing, Turabian citations, and plagiarism from a theological perspective.

Where can I find writing help?

Theological Writing Resources (Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary)

A collection of resources that address general and theological writing available to seminary students in the portal. 

Purdue Online Writing Lab (Purdue University)

A comprehensive collection of resources relating to the academic writing and research process.

Boise State University Project Writing and Research e-Textbook (Boise State University)

An introduction to the acadmic writing process, incluidng helpful tools and resources.

How to write an exegesis paper with library resources (Azusa Pacific University)

A guide to the unique steps you need to take when writing an exegetical paper.

What tools can I use to manage my citations and research?

Citation Managers: Comparison Chart (University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries)

There are several different free and paid citation managers on the market. This comparison chart shows the features of four popular citation managers.


One of the most robust free options for managing citations and organizing your research is Zotero, which is available at the link above. You can find detailed information about using Zotero in the tutorials on this page.

Zotero [overview and tutorials] (The University of Texas at Austin)

A comprehensive page with information about setting up and using Zotero, including video tutorials.

Using Zotero [YouTube Video] (UNC University Libraries, Park Library)

This 15 minute video gives a hands-on demonstration of setting up and using Zotero.

Quick Cite Guide

Below is a quick guide to Chicago Manual of Style most-used citation formats. Please check the manual to confirm your resource's proper citation. The seminary uses the Notes and Bibliography citation format. 


The search box feature on the Chicago Manual of Style is a helpful way to get quickly to the content you need. 


 To jump to a resource, click one of the formats


Book (link to more info)

One Author

Wallin, Laurie. Why Your Weirdness Is Wonderful: Embrace Your Quirks and Live Your Strengths. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2014.

Multiple Authors

Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.


 eBook (link to more info)

Entire eBook

Tabachnick, Stephen E. 2014. The Quest for Jewish Belief and Identity in the Graphic Novel. Judaic Studies Series. Tuscaloosa: University Alabama Press. https://apts.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xna&AN=778109&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Portion of eBook

Bishop, Tom. The Great Mormon Cricket Fly-Fishing Festival and Other Western Stories. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007.https://apts.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=191759&site=eds-live&scope=site, chap. 10.


Journal Article (link to more info)

What's a DOI number? A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique permanent name or number assigned to an article or book. The DOI will usually appear on the first or last page of the item. 

If there's a DOI number

Rogland, Max. “‘Moses Used to Take a Tent’?: Reconsidering the Function and Significance of the Verb Forms in Exodus 33:7-11.” The Journal of Theological Studies 63, no. 2 (October 2012): 449–66. doi:10.1093/jts/fls112.

If there's not a DOI number

Rogland, Max. "'Moses used to take a tent'?: reconsidering the function and significance of the verb forms in Exodus 33:7-11." The Journal Of Theological Studies 63, no. 2 (October 2012): 449-466. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed March 24, 2016).

Edited Work (link to more info)

Edited work with multiple authors

Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane, ed. Art, Creativity, and the Sacred: An Anthology in Religion and Art. New York: Continuum, 1995.

Essay within a volume

Pelham, Abigail. "Making and unmaking the world in the book of Job: reading Job with help from Elaine Scarry, Kurt Vonnegut, and Don LaFontaine." In Looking through a glass Bible: postdisciplinary biblical interpretations from the Glasgow School, 193-210. Leiden: Brill, 2014. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed April 26, 2016).



Not sure how to elaborate on this. CMOS says " It’s a good idea to note somewhere in your essay which version of the Bible you are using, and then simply cite book, chapter, and verse. In Chicago style, for example, that would be Genesis 3:1."

Citing the Bible in notes (link to more info)

6. Gen. 1:5 (Authorized (King James) Version).
7. 1 Sam. 7:1-5 (AV).

How to cite the Bible version (link to more info)

6. Gen. 1:5 (Authorized (King James) Version).
7. 1 Sam. 7:1-5 (AV).

Ex. First mention in notes: (Authorized (King James) Version)

Ex. Second mention in notes: (AV)

Quoting the Bible (link to more info)

According to Genesis, 2:25, the man and his wife were unclothed. 

Lecture (link to more info)

Lecture paper presentation

Teplin, Linda A., Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn. “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005.

Seminary sermon

Lincoln, Timothy D. "City of God." Austin Presbyterian Theological Chapel Service, Austin, TA, May 7, 2013.


Blog (link to more info)

Blog with little information

"Lenten Devotional: Monday of Holy Week." The Conversation. Accessed March 24, 2016. http://www.northparkpres.org/blog/lenten-devotional-monday-holy-week/.

Blog with lots of information

Jobe, Eric. “The Price of Kingship – Of Kings and Prophets, Episode 2.”Departing Horeb, March 17, 2016.https://blogs.ancientfaith.com/departinghoreb/price-kingship-kings-prophets-episode-2/.



Website (link to more info)

Website with little information

"Reading and Studying the Text This Week." Holy / Maundy Thursday. Accessed March 24, 2016. http://www.textweek.com/festivals/thursday.htm.

Website with lots of information

“Rev. Graham Warns Wheaton College: ‘Islam and Christianity Clearly Do Not Worship the Same God.’” CNS News.   http://cnsnews.com/blog/michael-w-chapman/rev-graham-warns-wheaton-college-islam-and-christianity-clearly-do-not.


IBID (link to more info)

Ibid. for print book with page numbers

5. Lincoln, City of God.

6. Rogland, 'Moses used to take a tent'?, 342.

Ibid. for ebook with no page numbers

7. Ibid., 355-356.

8. Tabachnick, The Quest for Jewish Belief and Identity in the Graphic Novel, Chap 5.

7. Ibid., Chap 7.


Block Quote (link to more info)

Long Quote

Van Gorder discusses the Prophet's youth as

Muhammad began his own life within the throes of deep poverty. This illiterate orphan knew poverty firsthand; this experience helped him to gain a high level of sympathy for those who were poor. As a youth he did tough manual work on the caravan routes and eventually became a successful entrepreneur. In all of his business dealings the Prophet was honest, generous and resourceful in his finances.

Cited Quote

Van Gorder, A. Christian. Islam, Peace and Social Justice : A Christian Perspective. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co, 2014. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost (accessed March 24, 2016).

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